The Australasian Virtual Herbarium (AVH) is an online resource that allows access to plant specimen data held by various Australian and New Zealand herbaria. It is part of the Atlas of Living Australia (ALA), and was formed by the amalgamation of Australia's Virtual Herbarium and NZ Virtual Herbarium. As of 12 August 2014, more than five million specimens of the 8 million and upwards specimens available from participating institutions have been databased.
This resource is used by academics, students, and anyone interested in research in botany in Australia or New Zealand, since each record tells all that is known about the specimen: where and when it was collected; by whom; its current identification together with the botanist who identified it; and information on habitat and associated species. ALA post processes the original herbarium data, giving further fields with respect to taxonomy and quality of the data. When interrogating individual specimen records, the environmental overlays show reverse jackknife testing to see whether the specimen is an outlier with respect to the climate and other environmental layers. See e.g., MEL 0304065A (Scaevola amblyanthera).
All records are downloadable in their entirety, by anyone. Examples of the use of these records may be found in
- journal articles on: e.g., sea warming; marine biogeography; acacias; weeds; determining phytogeographical regions via species composition; developing biodiverse plantings suitable for changing climatic conditions; phylogenetics and conservation; and statistical issues arising when using herbaria data
- some Wikipedia range maps for, e.g., Tribonanthes violacea, Blancoa canescens and Haemodorum coccineum.
- The State Herbarium of South Australia (AD), Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources
- Auckland War Memorial Museum (AK)
- The Queensland Herbarium (BRI), Department of Science, Information Technology and Innovation (DSITI)
- The Australian National Herbarium (CANB), Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, CSIRO Plant Industry and the Australian National Botanic Gardens
- The University of Canterbury Herbarium (CANU), University of Canterbury
- The Allan Herbarium (CHR), Landcare Research NZ Ltd
- The Australian Tropical Herbarium (CNS), a joint venture of CSIRO Plant Industry and the Director National Parks (through the Australian National Herbarium), the Queensland Government (through the Queensland Herbarium and the Department of Science, Information Technology, Innovation and the Arts (DSITIA)) and James Cook University
- The Northern Territory Herbarium, in Darwin (DNA) and Alice Springs (NT), Department of Environment and Natural Resources
- The Tasmanian Herbarium (HO), Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Department of State Growth
- The James Cook University Herbarium (JCT), James Cook University
- The Lincoln University Herbarium (LINC), Lincoln University
- The La Trobe University Herbarium (LTB)
- The National Herbarium of Victoria (MEL), Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria
- The University of Melbourne Herbarium (MELU)
- The Dame Ella Campbell Herbarium (MPN), Massey University
- The N.C.W. Beadle Herbarium (NE), The University of New England
- The National Herbarium of New South Wales (NSW), Botanic Gardens Trust
- The New Zealand Forestry Herbarium (NZFRI), SCION
- The New Zealand Fungarium (PDD), Landcare Research NZ Ltd
- The Western Australian Herbarium (PERTH), Department of Biodiversity, Conservation and Attractions
- The Herbarium (UNITEC), Unitec Institute of Technology
- The Herbarium (WELT), Museum of New Zealand – Te Papa Tongarewa
- The Janet Cosh Herbarium (WOLL), The University of Wollongong
Plans for Australia's Virtual Herbarium were announced in 2001. An article by Tim Entwisle in 2003 shows it still to be largely in the planning stage at that time, although the projected usages for preservation of biodiversity in western New South Wales were already visible.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) also permits unfettered access to global species collections data
- Atlas of Living Australia (ALA) ALA & AVH are closely linked, with downloads from AVH hosted by ALA.
- "Australasian Virtual Herbarium". AVH. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
- "What is Australia's Virtual Herbarium? Australian National Botanical Gardens, Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research". Retrieved 2 May 2018.
- "AVH Blog: October 15, 2013". Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- "NZ Virtual Herbarium". Archived from the original on 3 May 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- "AVH Press release 12 August 2014". Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- "Atlas of Living Australia: Data processing (October 9, 2013)". Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Atlas of Living Australia data quality: detected outlier jackknife. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
- Bennett, S. (2012)"Notes on Methods for Detecting Spatial Outliers in Species Occurrence Data" Atlas of Living Australia. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
- "AVH Blog: June 1, 2012". Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Wernberg, T., Russell, B.D., Thomsen, M.S., Gurgel, F.D., Bradshaw, C.J.A., Poloczanska, E.S., Connell, S.D.Wernberg, Thomas; Russell, Bayden D.; Thomsen, Mads S.; Gurgel, C. Frederico D.; Bradshaw, Corey J.A.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.; Connell, Sean D. (2011). "Seaweed communities in Retreat from Ocean Warming". Current Biology. 21 (21): 1828–1832. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.09.028. PMID 22036178.pdf
- Waters, J.M, Wernberg, T., Connell, S.D., Thomsen, M.S., Zuccarello, G.C., Kraft, G.T., Sanderson, J.C., West, J.A., Gurgel, C.F.D. 2010. Australia's marine biogeography revisited: Back to the future? Austral Ecology 35, 988-992. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9993.2010.02114.x
- Richardson, D.M., Carruthers, J., Hui, C., Impson, F.A.C., Miller, J.T., Robertson, M.P., Rouget, M., Roux, J.J.L., Wilson, J.R.U. 2011. Human‐mediated introductions of Australian acacias – a global experiment in biogeography. Diversity and Distributions 17, 771-787.doi:10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00824.xpdf
- Beaumont, Linda J.; Gallagher, Rachael V.; Leishman, Michelle R.; Hughes, Lesley; Downey, Paul O.; Wilson, John (2014). "How can knowledge of the climate niche inform the weed risk assessment process? A case study of Chrysanthemoides monilifera in Australia". Diversity and Distributions. 20 (6): 613–625. doi:10.1111/ddi.12190. ISSN 1366-9516.
- Dodd, Aaron J.; Burgman, Mark A.; McCarthy, Michael A.; Ainsworth, Nigel; Duncan, Richard (2015). "The changing patterns of plant naturalization in Australia". Diversity and Distributions. 21 (9): 1038–1050. doi:10.1111/ddi.12351. hdl:11343/217150. ISSN 1366-9516.
- Joger, Ulrich; González-Orozco, Carlos E.; Ebach, Malte C.; Laffan, Shawn; Thornhill, Andrew H.; Knerr, Nunzio J.; Schmidt-Lebuhn, Alexander N.; Cargill, Christine C.; Clements, Mark; Nagalingum, Nathalie S.; Mishler, Brent D.; Miller, Joseph T. (2014). "Quantifying Phytogeographical Regions of Australia Using Geospatial Turnover in Species Composition". PLOS ONE. 9 (3): e92558. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...992558G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092558. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 3962426. PMID 24658356.
- Booth, Trevor H.; Williams, Kristen J.; Belbin, Lee (2012). "Developing biodiverse plantings suitable for changing climatic conditions 2: Using the Atlas of Living Australia". Ecological Management & Restoration. 13 (3): 274–281. doi:10.1111/emr.12000. ISSN 1442-7001.
- Pollock, L. J.; Rosauer, D. F.; Thornhill, A. H.; Kujala, H.; Crisp, M. D.; Miller, J. T.; McCarthy, M. A. (2015). "Phylogenetic diversity meets conservation policy: small areas are key to preserving eucalypt lineages". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 370 (1662): 20140007. doi:10.1098/rstb.2014.0007. ISSN 0962-8436. PMC 4290421. PMID 25561668.
- Hyndman, R. J.; Mesgaran, M. B.; Cousens, R. D. (2015). "Statistical issues with using herbarium data for the estimation of invasion lag-phases". Biological Invasions. 17 (12): 3371–3381. doi:10.1007/s10530-015-0962-8. hdl:11343/282687. ISSN 1387-3547. S2CID 16212951.
- "Google Scholar: Australia's Virtual Herbarium". Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- Holmgren, P.K. & Holmgren, N.H. 1998 (continuously updated). "Index Herbariorum: A global directory of public herbaria and associated staff". New York: New York Botanical Garden. Retrieved 18 June 2008.
- "Parliament of Australia: Senator Robert Hill: Media release: June 14, 2001". Retrieved 4 May 2018.
- Entwisle, T. 2003. Australia's virtual herbarium. Australian Geographic, 08161658, Apr-Jun2003, Issue 70.
- AVH: Search for records in the Australasian Virtual Herbarium. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- AVH: Data. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- New York Botanic Garden: Index Herbariorum. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
- Atlas of Living Australia: Data processing (October 9, 2013.) Retrieved 4 May 2018.