Largest economies by nominal GDP in 2021[1]
Countries by nominal GDP in 2019[n 1]
  >$20 trillion
  $10–20 trillion
  $5–10 trillion
  $1–5 trillion
  $750 billion – $1 trillion
  $500–50 billion
  $250–500 billion
  $100–250 billion
  $50–100 billion
  $25–50 billion
  $5–25 billion
  <$5 billion

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.[2] Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. Nominal GDP does not take into account differences in the cost of living in different countries, and the results can vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of the country's currency.[3] Such fluctuations may change a country's ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference in the standard of living of its population.[4]

Comparisons of national wealth are also frequently made on the basis of purchasing power parity (PPP), to adjust for differences in the cost of living in different countries. PPP largely removes the exchange rate problem, but has its own drawbacks; it does not reflect the value of economic output in international trade, does not take into account the differences of quality of goods and services among countries, and it also requires more estimation than nominal GDP.[5] On the whole, PPP per capita figures are less spread than nominal GDP per capita figures.[6]

Although the rankings of national economies have changed considerably over time, the United States has maintained its top position since the Gilded Age, a time period in which its economy saw rapid expansion, surpassing the British Empire and Qing dynasty in aggregate output.[7][8] Since China's transition to a market-based economy through controlled privatisation and deregulation,[9][10] the country has seen its ranking increase from ninth, in 1978, to second, in 2016. Economic growth accelerated and its share of global nominal GDP surged from 2% in 1980 to 15% in 2016.[8][1] Among others, India has also experienced an economic boom since the implementation of economic liberalisation in the early 1990s.[11]

The first list includes estimates compiled by the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook, the second list shows the World Bank's data, and the third list includes data compiled by the United Nations Statistics Division. The IMF definitive data for the past year and estimates for the current year are published twice a year in April and October. Non-sovereign entities (the world, continents, and some dependent territories) and states with limited international recognition (such as Kosovo, Palestine, and Taiwan) are included in the list where they appear in the sources.

Table

The table initially ranks each country or territory with the latest available estimate, and can be reranked by either of the sources

The links in the "Country/Territory" row of the following table link to the article on the GDP or the economy of the respective country or territory.

GDP (US$ million) by country
Country/Territory Subregion Region IMF[1] United Nations[12] World Bank[13][14]
Estimate Year Estimate Year Estimate Year
 United States Northern America Americas 22,939,580 2021 20,893,746 2020 20,936,600 2020
 China Eastern Asia Asia 16,862,979 [n 2]2021 14,722,801 [n 3]2020 14,722,731 2020
 Japan Eastern Asia Asia 5,103,110 2021 5,057,759 2020 4,975,415 2020
 Germany Western Europe Europe 4,230,172 2021 3,846,414 2020 3,806,060 2020
 United Kingdom Northern Europe Europe 3,108,416 2021 2,764,198 2020 2,707,744 2020
 India Southern Asia Asia 2,946,061 2021 2,664,749 2020 2,622,984 2020
 France Western Europe Europe 2,940,428 2021 2,630,318 2020 2,603,004 2020
 Italy Southern Europe Europe 2,120,232 2021 1,888,709 2020 1,886,445 2020
 Canada Northern America Americas 2,015,983 2021 1,644,037 2020 1,643,408 2020
 South Korea Eastern Asia Asia 1,823,852 2021 1,637,896 2020 1,630,525 2020
 Russia Eastern Europe Europe 1,647,568 2021 1,483,498 2020 1,483,498 2020
 Brazil South America Americas 1,645,837 2021 1,444,733 2020 1,444,733 2020
 Australia Australia, New Zealand Oceania 1,610,556 2021 1,423,473 2020 1,330,901 2020
 Spain Southern Europe Europe 1,439,958 2021 1,281,485 2020 1,281,199 2020
 Mexico Central America Americas 1,285,518 2021 1,073,439 2020 1,076,163 2020
 Indonesia South-eastern Asia Asia 1,150,245 2021 1,058,424 2020 1,058,424 2020
 Iran Western Asia Asia 1,081,383 2021 939,316 2020 203,471 2020
 Netherlands Western Europe Europe 1,007,562 2021 913,865 2020 912,242 2020
 Saudi Arabia Western Asia Asia 842,588 2021 700,118 2020 700,118 2020
 Switzerland Western Europe Europe 810,830 2021 752,248 2020 747,969 2020
 Turkey Western Asia Asia 795,952 2021 720,098 2020 720,101 2020
 Taiwan Eastern Asia Asia 785,589 [n 4]2021 669,324 [15] 2020 668,500 2020
 Poland Eastern Europe Europe 655,332 2021 596,618 2020 594,165 2020
 Sweden Northern Europe Europe 622,365 2021 541,064 2020 537,610 2020
 Belgium Western Europe Europe 581,848 2021 521,861 2020 515,333 2020
 Thailand South-eastern Asia Asia 546,223 2021 501,795 2020 501,795 2020
 Ireland Northern Europe Europe 516,253 2021 425,889 2020 418,622 2020
 Austria Western Europe Europe 481,209 2021 433,258 2020 428,965 2020
 Nigeria Western Africa Africa 480,482 2021 429,899 2020 432,294 2020
 Israel Western Asia Asia 467,532 2021 407,101 2020 401,954 2020
 Argentina South America Americas 455,172 2021 383,067 2020 383,067 2020
 Norway Northern Europe Europe 445,507 2021 362,522 2020 362,009 2020
 South Africa Southern Africa Africa 415,315 2021 302,141 2020 301,924 2020
 United Arab Emirates Western Asia Asia 410,158 2021 358,869 2020 421,142 2020
 Denmark Northern Europe Europe 396,666 2021 356,085 2020 355,184 2020
 Egypt Northern Africa Africa 396,328 2021 369,309 2020 363,069 2020
 Philippines South-eastern Asia Asia 385,737 2021 361,489 2020 361,489 2020
 Singapore South-eastern Asia Asia 378,645 2021 339,988 2020 339,998 2020
 Malaysia South-eastern Asia Asia 371,114 2021 336,664 2020 336,664 2020
 Hong Kong Eastern Asia Asia 369,722 [n 5]2021 349,445 2020 346,586 2020
 Vietnam South-eastern Asia Asia 368,002 2021 271,158 2020 271,158 2020
 Bangladesh Southern Asia Asia 355,689 2021 329,484 2020 324,239 2020
 Pakistan Southern Asia Asia 347,000 2021 257,829 2020 263,687 2020
 Chile South America Americas 331,250 2021 252,940 2020 252,940 2020
 Colombia South America Americas 300,791 2021 271,347 2020 271,347 2020
 Finland Northern Europe Europe 296,016 2021 269,751 2020 271,234 2020
 Romania Eastern Europe Europe 287,279 2021 248,716 2020 248,716 2020
 Czech Republic Eastern Europe Europe 276,914 2021 245,349 2020 243,530 2020
 Portugal Southern Europe Europe 251,709 2021 228,539 2020 231,256 2020
 New Zealand Australia, New Zealand Oceania 247,640 2021 212,044 2020 212,482 2020
 Peru South America Americas 225,858 2021 203,196 2020 202,014 2020
 Greece Southern Europe Europe 211,645 2021 188,835 2020 189,410 2020
 Iraq Western Asia Asia 201,472 2021 166,757 2020 167,224 2020
 Kazakhstan Central Asia Asia 194,024 2021 171,082 2020 169,835 2020
 Ukraine Eastern Europe Europe 181,038 [n 6]2021 155,582 [n 6]2020 155,582 2020
 Hungary Eastern Europe Europe 180,959 2021 155,808 2020 155,013 2020
 Qatar Western Asia Asia 169,184 2021 146,401 2020 146,374 2020
 Algeria Northern Africa Africa 163,812 2021 147,689 2020 145,164 2020
 Kuwait Western Asia Asia 132,266 2021 105,949 2020 136,197 2019
 Morocco Northern Africa Africa 126,035 2021 114,724 [n 7]2020 112,871 2020
 Slovakia Eastern Europe Europe 116,748 2021 105,173 2020 104,574 2020
 Kenya Eastern Africa Africa 109,491 2021 101,014 2020 98,843 2020
 Cuba Caribbean Americas N/A 107,352 2020 103,131 2019
 Puerto Rico Caribbean Americas 106,576 2021 103,138 2020 103,138 2020
 Ecuador South America Americas 104,483 2021 98,808 2020 98,808 2020
 Ethiopia Eastern Africa Africa 92,757 2021 96,611 2020 107,645 2020
 Dominican Republic Caribbean Americas 89,502 2021 78,845 2020 78,845 2020
 Luxembourg Western Europe Europe 83,771 2021 73,353 2020 73,264 2020
 Guatemala Central America Americas 83,305 2021 77,605 2020 77,605 2020
 Sri Lanka Southern Asia Asia 80,785 2021 80,677 2020 80,707 2020
 Oman Western Asia Asia 80,611 2021 63,368 2020 76,332 2019
 Bulgaria Eastern Europe Europe 77,907 2021 69,888 2020 69,105 2020
 Ghana Western Africa Africa 75,487 2021 68,532 2020 72,354 2020
 Angola Middle Africa Africa 70,339 2021 62,307 2020 62,307 2020
 Tanzania Eastern Africa Africa 69,238 2021 64,740 [n 8]2020 62,410 2020
 Ivory Coast Western Africa Africa 68,845 2021 61,143 2020 61,349 2020
 Myanmar South-eastern Asia Asia 66,740 2021 70,284 2020 76,186 2020
 Belarus Eastern Europe Europe 65,754 2021 60,259 2020 60,258 2020
 Uzbekistan Central Asia Asia 65,503 2021 57,707 2020 57,707 2020
 Lebanon Western Asia Asia 19,126 2020 63,546 2020 33,383 2020
 Croatia Southern Europe Europe 63,399 2021 57,204 2020 55,967 2020
 Lithuania Northern Europe Europe 62,635 2021 56,547 2020 55,887 2020
 Costa Rica Central America Americas 61,178 2021 61,521 2020 61,521 2020
 Slovenia Southern Europe Europe 60,890 2021 53,590 2020 52,880 2020
 Serbia Southern Europe Europe 60,669 2021 53,335 2020 52,960 2020
 Panama Central America Americas 60,121 2021 52,938 2020 52,938 2020
 Uruguay South America Americas 60,108 2021 53,629 2020 53,629 2020
 DR Congo Middle Africa Africa 54,832 2021 45,308 2020 49,869 2020
 Turkmenistan Central Asia Asia 53,087 2021 42,845 2020 45,231 2019
 Azerbaijan Western Asia Asia 52,645 2021 42,607 2020 42,607 2020
 Jordan Western Asia Asia 45,344 2021 43,697 2020 43,698 2020
 Venezuela South America Americas 44,893 2021 106,359 2020 482,359 2014
 Cameroon Middle Africa Africa 44,806 2021 39,881 2020 39,802 2020
 Uganda Eastern Africa Africa 43,243 2021 38,702 2020 37,372 2020
 Tunisia Northern Africa Africa 42,733 2021 39,218 2020 39,236 2020
 Bahrain Western Asia Asia 39,104 2021 33,904 2020 38,475 2019
 Bolivia South America Americas 38,547 2021 36,573 2020 36,689 2020
 Latvia Northern Europe Europe 37,199 2021 33,707 2020 33,505 2020
 Paraguay South America Americas 36,973 2021 35,304 2020 35,304 2020
 Estonia Northern Europe Europe 36,039 2021 30,650 2020 31,030 2020
 Sudan Northern Africa Africa 35,919 2021 62,057 2020 26,111 2020
 Nepal Southern Asia Asia 34,265 2021 33,079 2020 33,657 2020
 Macau Eastern Asia Asia 29,223 [n 9]2021 24,333 2020 55,154 2019
 El Salvador Central America Americas 27,665 2021 24,639 2020 24,639 2020
 Senegal Western Africa Africa 27,576 2021 24,412 2020 24,911 2020
 Libya Northern Africa Africa 27,300 2021 29,153 2020 25,418 2020
 Cyprus Western Asia Asia 26,546 2021 24,612 [n 10]2020 23,804 2020
 Papua New Guinea Melanesia Oceania 26,461 2021 23,619 2020 23,592 2020
 Honduras Central America Americas 26,325 2021 23,828 2020 23,828 2020
 Cambodia South-eastern Asia Asia 26,080 2021 25,291 2020 25,291 2020
 Zimbabwe Eastern Africa Africa 25,791 2021 21,787 2020 16,769 2020
 Iceland Northern Europe Europe 25,476 2021 21,718 2020 21,715 2020
 Zambia Eastern Africa Africa 21,699 2021 18,111 2020 19,320 2020
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Southern Europe Europe 21,692 2021 19,801 2020 19,788 2020
 Trinidad and Tobago Caribbean Americas 21,599 2021 21,393 2020 21,530 2020
 Haiti Caribbean Americas 20,143 2021 15,505 2020 13,418 2020
 Afghanistan Southern Asia Asia 19,938 2021 19,793 2020 19,807 2020
 Burkina Faso Western Africa Africa 19,932 2021 17,369 2020 17,369 2020
 Mali Western Africa Africa 19,563 2021 17,332 2020 17,394 2020
 Yemen Western Asia Asia 19,471 2021 27,958 2020 23,486 2018
 Laos South-eastern Asia Asia 19,375 2021 19,082 2020 19,136 2020
 Gabon Middle Africa Africa 18,293 2021 15,111 2020 15,593 2020
 Benin Western Africa Africa 18,067 2021 15,205 2020 15,652 2020
 Georgia Western Asia Asia 17,846 2021 15,892 2020 15,892 [n 11]2020
 Botswana Southern Africa Africa 17,605 2021 15,782 2020 15,782 2020
 Palestine Western Asia Asia 17,343 [n 12]2021 15,561 [n 12]2020 15,561 2020
 Albania Southern Europe Europe 16,770 2021 14,910 2020 14,800 2020
 Guinea Western Africa Africa 16,724 2021 15,490 2020 15,681 2020
 Malta Southern Europe Europe 16,695 2021 14,911 2020 14,647 2020
 North Korea Eastern Asia Asia N/A 15,847 2020 N/A
 Mozambique Eastern Africa Africa 15,833 2021 14,029 2020 14,021 2020
 Brunei South-eastern Asia Asia 15,686 2021 12,003 2020 12,016 2020
 Niger Western Africa Africa 15,637 2021 13,741 2020 13,678 2020
 Syria Western Asia Asia 60,043 2010 15,572 2020 40,405 2007
 Jamaica Caribbean Americas 14,857 2021 13,812 2020 13,812 2020
 Mongolia Eastern Asia Asia 14,280 2021 13,137 2020 13,137 2020
 Madagascar Eastern Africa Africa 14,101 2021 13,008 2020 13,721 2020
 North Macedonia Southern Europe Europe 13,885 2021 12,264 2020 12,267 2020
 Armenia Western Asia Asia 13,612 2021 12,641 2020 12,645 2020
 Nicaragua Central America Americas 13,397 2021 12,621 2020 12,621 2020
 Congo Middle Africa Africa 12,744 2021 10,100 2020 10,885 2020
 Equatorial Guinea Middle Africa Africa 12,528 2021 10,022 2020 10,022 2020
 Moldova Eastern Europe Europe 12,396 [n 13]2021 11,914 [n 13]2020 11,914 2020
 Chad Middle Africa Africa 12,345 2021 11,154 2020 10,093 2020
 Namibia Southern Africa Africa 12,213 2021 10,710 2020 10,700 2020
 Malawi Eastern Africa Africa 12,150 2021 11,762 2020 11,962 2020
 Mauritius Eastern Africa Africa 10,998 2021 10,921 2020 10,914 2020
 Bahamas Caribbean Americas 10,681 2021 9,908 2020 11,250 2020
 Rwanda Eastern Africa Africa 10,395 2021 10,332 2020 10,334 2020
 New Caledonia Melanesia Oceania N/A 9,709 2020 2,682 2000
 Mauritania Western Africa Africa 9,164 2021 7,916 2020 7,779 2020
 Kosovo Southern Europe Europe 8,958 2021 7,734 2020 7,611 2020
 Togo Western Africa Africa 8,493 2021 7,146 2020 7,575 2020
 Kyrgyzstan Central Asia Asia 8,150 2021 7,736 2020 7,736 2020
 Tajikistan Central Asia Asia 8,104 2021 7,997 2020 8,194 2020
 Bermuda Northern America Americas N/A 7,719 2020 7,484 2019
 Guyana South America Americas 7,395 2021 5,471 2020 5,471 2020
 Liechtenstein Western Europe Europe N/A 6,872 2020 6,839 2018
 Monaco Western Europe Europe N/A 6,816 2020 7,424 2019
 Cayman Islands Caribbean Americas N/A 6,256 2020 5,936 2019
 Guam Micronesia Oceania N/A N/A 5,844 2020
 French Polynesia Polynesia Oceania N/A 5,817 2020 3,448 2000
 Montenegro Southern Europe Europe 5,494 2021 4,789 2020 4,779 2020
 Somalia Eastern Africa Africa 5,424 2021 1,873 2020 4,918 2020
 Barbados Caribbean Americas 4,648 2021 4,440 2020 4,366 2020
 Fiji Melanesia Oceania 4,639 2021 4,494 2020 4,376 2020
 Maldives Southern Asia Asia 4,573 2021 3,743 2020 4,030 2020
 Eswatini Southern Africa Africa 4,517 2021 3,835 2020 3,962 2020
 Sierra Leone Western Africa Africa 4,407 2021 3,787 2020 3,865 2020
 Djibouti Eastern Africa Africa 3,654 2021 3,423 2020 3,384 2020
 Liberia Western Africa Africa 3,384 2021 2,481 2020 2,950 2020
 South Sudan Eastern Africa Africa 3,263 2021 15,903 2020 11,998 2015
 Andorra Southern Europe Europe 3,213 2021 2,864 2020 3,155 2019
 Burundi Eastern Africa Africa 3,193 2021 3,399 2020 3,258 2020
 Greenland Northern America Americas N/A 3,130 2020 3,052 2018
 Aruba Caribbean Americas 2,865 2021 2,497 2020 3,202 2018
 Suriname South America Americas 2,817 2021 4,120 2020 3,808 2020
 Curaçao Caribbean Americas N/A 2,596 2020 3,102 2019
 Central African Republic Middle Africa Africa 2,587 2021 2,323 2020 2,303 2020
 Bhutan Southern Asia Asia 2,480 2021 2,483 2020 2,409 2020
 Lesotho Southern Africa Africa 2,478 2021 2,273 2020 1,845 2020
 Eritrea Eastern Africa Africa 2,254 2021 2,084 2020 2,065 2011
 Gambia Western Africa Africa 2,042 2021 1,830 2020 1,902 2020
 Belize Central America Americas 1,909 2021 1,586 2020 1,764 2020
 Cape Verde Western Africa Africa 1,886 2021 1,704 2020 1,704 2020
 San Marino Southern Europe Europe 1,728 2021 1,555 2020 1,616 2019
 Zanzibar Eastern Africa Africa N/A 1,724 2020 N/A
 Saint Lucia Caribbean Americas 1,715 2021 1,617 2020 1,703 2020
 East Timor South-eastern Asia Asia 1,697 2021 1,902 2020 1,821 2020
 Solomon Islands Melanesia Oceania 1,649 2021 1,546 2020 1,551 2020
 Guinea-Bissau Western Africa Africa 1,592 2021 1,315 2020 1,432 2020
 British Virgin Islands Caribbean Americas N/A 1,492 2020 N/A
 Antigua and Barbuda Caribbean Americas 1,405 2021 1,370 2020 1,415 2020
 Seychelles Eastern Africa Africa 1,288 2021 1,059 2020 1,125 2020
 Comoros Eastern Africa Africa 1,281 2021 1,235 2020 1,220 2020
 Northern Mariana Islands Micronesia Oceania N/A N/A 1,182 2019
 Grenada Caribbean Americas 1,083 2021 1,043 2020 1,089 2020
 Vanuatu Melanesia Oceania 999 2021 855 2020 855 2020
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Caribbean Americas 976 2021 927 2020 927 2020
 Turks and Caicos Islands Caribbean Americas N/A 925 2020 925 2020
 Sint Maarten Caribbean Americas N/A 857 2020 1,185 2018
 Samoa Polynesia Oceania 780 2021 772 2020 807 2020
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Caribbean Americas 769 2021 810 2020 810 2020
 American Samoa Polynesia Oceania N/A N/A 709 2020
 Dominica Caribbean Americas 571 2021 507 2020 470 2020
 São Tomé and Príncipe Middle Africa Africa 534 2021 476 2020 473 2020
 Tonga Polynesia Oceania 501 2021 491 2020 512 2019
 Micronesia Micronesia Oceania 404 2021 403 2020 408 2019
 Cook Islands Polynesia Oceania N/A 283 2020 N/A
 Anguilla Caribbean Americas N/A 258 2020 N/A
 Marshall Islands Micronesia Oceania 241 2021 244 2020 239 2019
 Kiribati Micronesia Oceania 232 2021 181 2020 200 2020
 Palau Micronesia Oceania 208 2021 264 2020 268 2019
 Nauru Micronesia Oceania 133 2021 135 2020 118 2019
 Montserrat Caribbean Americas N/A 68 2020 N/A
 Tuvalu Polynesia Oceania 65 2021 55 2020 49 2020

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Based on IMF data. If no data is available for a country from the IMF, then data from the United Nations is used.
  2. ^ Figures exclude Taiwan, and special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  3. ^ Figures exclude special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
  4. ^ The name used in IMF's report is "Taiwan Province of China".
  5. ^ The name used in IMF's report is "Hong Kong SAR".
  6. ^ a b Figures exclude Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol.
  7. ^ Includes Western Sahara.
  8. ^ The UN figure excludes autonomous region of Zanzibar.
  9. ^ The name used in IMF's report is "Macao SAR".
  10. ^ Data are for the area controlled by the Government of the Republic of Cyprus.
  11. ^ Excludes Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
  12. ^ a b The name used in IMF's an the World Bank's report is "West Bank and Gaza".
  13. ^ a b Excludes data for Transnistria.

References

  1. ^ a b c "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2021". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. October 2021. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  2. ^ "What is GDP and why is it so important?". Investopedia. IAC/InterActiveCorp. 26 February 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  3. ^ Moffatt, Mike. "A Beginner's Guide to Purchasing Power Parity Theory". About.com. IAC/InterActiveCorp. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  4. ^ Ito, Takatoshi; Isard, Peter; Symansky, Steven (January 1999). "Economic Growth and Real Exchange Rate: An Overview of the Balassa-Samuelson Hypothesis in Asia" (PDF). Changes in Exchange Rates in Rapidly Development Countries: Theory, Practice, and Policy Issues. National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  5. ^ Callen, Tim (28 March 2012). "Purchasing Power Parity: Weights Matter". Finance & Development. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  6. ^ Callen, Tim (28 March 2012). "Gross Domestic Product: An Economy's All". Finance & Development. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  7. ^ Matthews, Chris (5 October 2014). "5 Most Powerful Economic Empires of All Time". Fortune. Time, Inc. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  8. ^ a b Kroeber, Arthur R. (2016). China's Economy: What Everyone Needs to Know. New York, United States: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190239053.
  9. ^ Kau, Michael Ying-mao (30 September 1993). China in the Era of Deng Xiaoping: A Decade of Reform. Studies on Contemporary China. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781563242786. Retrieved 23 May 2016.
  10. ^ Hu, Zuliu; Khan, Mohsin S. (April 1997). "Why Is China Growing So Fast?" (PDF). Economic Issues. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
  11. ^ Rodrik, Dani; et al. (March 2004). "From "Hindu Growth" to Productivity Surge: The Mystery of the Indian Growth Transition" (PDF). National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
  12. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division - National Accounts". unstats.un.org.
  13. ^ "GDP (current US$) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2 July 2021.
  14. ^ "GDP-Countries-List". tradingeconomics.com. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  15. ^ "GDP: Preliminary Estimate for 2021 Q3, and outlook for 2021-22" (PDF). eng.stat.gov.tw. Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics. Retrieved 20 January 2022.